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Water-based adhesives
Question submitted on 1/25/06

We are studing about water base adhesive market situation. I read PPRC's water based adhesive technolgy review, released September 1998. Do you have any up data about the market situation or recommend some studies?

Answer:

I did a literature search of Google, Compendex (Engineering Index), and the WMRC Library's in-house article database for studies completed since 2000. I've also forwarded your e-mail to PPRC in case they have anything to add.

ht You may also want to take a look at the current issue of Adhesives & Sealants Industry. One of the featured articles is a 2006 industry outlook. (http://www.adhesivesmag.com/CDA/Archives/d2175fdd41bc8010VgnVCM100000f932a8c0____)

You can also locate more information about the latest developments in adhesives by contacting one of the trade organizations that represent adhesive manufacturers. There is a list at http://www.glueit.com/trade-associations.html.

Please note that we will not provide copies of articles from our database or Compendex. You should be able to obtain them through your local library's interlibrary loan service.

Here are the search results:

WEB SEARCH

Two-Part Water-Based Adhesive Technology Offers Performance and Versatility
http://www.adhesivesmag.com/CDA/Archives/ac78efc7e5ac8010VgnVCM100000f932a8c0____

Water Based Adhesives Forecast to Match Industry Growth
http://www.adhesivesmag.com/CDA/Archives/65f79f6846ac8010VgnVCM100000f932a8c0____

Rohm and Haas Advances Water Based Technology
http://www.aimcal.org/industry/story.asp?RECORD_KEY=ID&ID=278

Athletic Shoe Manufacturer Eliminates Solvent Emissions and Reduces Drying Time
http://www.advancedenergy.org/industrial_process_heating/case_studies/process_heating/athletic_shoe_manufacturer.html

Picking the Right Pallet Adhesive
http://screenprinters.net/read_article.php?article_filename=pallet_adhesive.html

Water, Water Everywhere
http://www.rohmhaas.com/AdhesivesSealants/PW_e_magazine_nov05/articles/PointOfView.html

Solventless Lamination Reduces Flexible Packaging VOCs
http://www.flexography.org/flexo/article.cfm?ID=42

Water Based Adhesives
http://www.flexography.org/flexo/0202/022002a.cfm?ID=42

Alternative Adhesives Technologies: Foam Furniture and Bedding Industries (A Cleaner Technologies Substitutes Assessment)
http://eerc.ra.utk.edu/ccpct/aap1.html

WMRC ARTICLE CITATION DATABASE

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

14654. "Bacteria from a Cow's Stomach May be Future Source for Wood Adhesive. Ondrey, G. Chemical Engineering, 111(8), 15-16 (2004). [Location: WMRC Library] Abstract: Scientists from the US Dairy Forage Research Center have discovered an all-natural adhesive that has the potential to replace up to 45% of the petroleum-based, phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resin currently used to bond multiple layers of wood together.

CHEMICAL WEEK

15180. "A New Cure for Sticky Situations: High Performance and Environmental Friendliness Help Radiation-Cured Adhesives Gain Acceptance" Valero, G. Chemical Week, 166(24), 27 (2004). [Location: File]
Abstract: "Better," "faster" and "cleaner" may sound like the selling points of a new car, but many adhesives industry members are using these words to describe radiation curing. Simply put, these are the primary advantages over competitive bonding chemistries. More and more end users are reportedly seeing the light as the technology expands into many applications, from food packaging to electronic equipment. Ultraviolet (UV) and electron beam (EB) are the two most publicized forms of radiation curing for adhesives. What is reportedly turning more end users on to these technologies is radiation cured products utilize hot melt, warm melt or liquid systems that are near 100 percent solids, specially formulated to polymerize instantly to UV light or EB energy, with no heat, water or solvents. And because an adhesive is not cured until exposure to UV or EB, users can work with it, place it where they want and have no fear of drying.

14901. "Suppliers Preach the Virtues of Green Adhesives. Valero, G. Chemical Week, 166(30), 38 (2004). [Location: File]
Abstract: Adhesives makers say tougher clean-air regulations are forcing them to develop environmentally friendlier products. If that isn't hard enough, then consider marketers must convince fickle customers that the latest green adhesives perform just as well as existing formulations. This is proving to be easier said than done, industry members say, because many end users are reluctant to deviate from products with which they're familiar.

CLEAN TECHNOLOGIES AND ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY

14672. "Adhesive designed by nature (and tested at Redstone Arsenal). Combie, J.; Steel, A.; Sweitzer, R. Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy, 6, 258-262 (2004). [Location: File]
Abstract: Many adhesives are not particularly environmentally friendly. Montan Biotech has been working on an affordable, water-based adhesive produced from a renewable resource. The high molecular weight polysaccharide is non-cytotoxic, biodegradable and has a melting point of 225ºC. This "green" adhesive has good tensile strength approximately 6.2 mPa on bare aluminum and is especially useful on epoxy glass and manufactured woods. Cured adhesive maintained full strength in an environmental chamber during a week-long 85% humidity, temperature-cycling program.

ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH PERSPECTIVES

15343. "Getting the Lead Out of Electronics. Black, H. Environmental Health Perspectives, 113(10), A682-A685 (2005). [Location: File]
Abstract: The electronics industry has relied on lead-tin solder to attach electronic components to printed wiring boards. However, new European regulations state that by July 2006 lead in electronics equipment must be replaced by other substances. Researchers are now exploring two promising substitutes. One is the use of alternative alloys, the most popular being a formulation of tin, silver, and copper. The other is the use of electrically conductive adhesives, polymers such as silicone or polyamide that contain tiny flakes of metals. Both innovations have potential environmental ramifications, however, and their developers are still refining them.

FACT SHEET/ OHIO EPA; NO. 78

13701. "Governor's Pollution Prevention Award, 1999 Recipient Lear Corportation, Wauseon Facility" Fact sheet/ Ohio EPA; no. 78, 4 p. (2000). [Location: File]
Abstract: Lear Corporation's Wauseon Facility is recognized for: implementing process and material improvements to the manufacturing process to minimize waste of any adhesive material used in producing interior door panels; reducing air emissions by 87 percent and the amount of hazardous waste disposed by 95 percent; eliminating employees' exposure to methyl ethyl ketone, toluene, hexane and other potentially harmful solvents; and saving more than $100,000 in raw material expenses alone.

POLLUTION PREVENTION REVIEW

11914. "Alternative Adhesive Use in Furniture-related Industries" : "Evaluation of Performance, Cost, and Risk." Wold, Katy; Swanson, Mary; Morris, Mike; Geibig, Jack; Sparks, John; Hanson, Bill. Pollution Prevention Review, 12(1), 1-20 (2002). [Location: WMRC Library]
Abstract: This paper investigates alternatives to traditional adhesives.

11879. "Practical Pollution Prevention" : "Electric Curing." Hillenbrand, Steve. Pollution Prevention Review, 11(4), 81-86 (2001). [Location: WMRC Library]
Abstract: Curing is required for many industrial production processes and materials, including coatings, adhesives, and composites. Many of these materials can cure on their own after application and exposure to air at room temperature without any outside help. However, the demands of production schedules usually require that curing occur at the fastest rates possible. Curing is typically speeded up by exposure to a heat source of some form, such as an oven. Electric ovens tend to be expensive to operate and gas-fired ovens may be somewhat cheaper to operate, but they emit additional pollution for their products of combustion and may result in lower quality cures. There are alternatives to conventional ovens and thermal curing that can save energy, improve product quality, and offer additional benefits. These four technologies that use electricity as an energy source are in a group that the author calls "applied technologies": infrared, microwave, radio frequency, and ultraviolet. These are examined in this article.

COMPENDEX

Comparative study on the adhesive properties of different epoxy resins
Prolongo, Silvia G. (Dpt. Ciencia e Ingenieria de Materiales, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos); Del Rosario, Gilberto; Urena, Alejandro Source: International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives, v 26, n 3, June, 2006, p 125-132
ISSN: 0143-7496 CODEN: IJAADK
Publisher: Elsevier Ltd
Abstract: Adhesive properties of different epoxy resins have been evaluated in terms of the lap shear strength using aluminium adherends. Its durability in various humid environments has also been analysed. The fracture mechanisms were determined by ESEM observations. Despite fact that fracture seems macroscopically adhesive, it was found that there is an important participation of cohesive fracture mechanisms. Also, it has been demonstrated that the extension of these micro-cohesive mechanisms is directly correlated with the adhesive strength. Studied epoxy formulations are based on the two different crosslinking mechanisms, addition reaction and homopolymerisation. Curing behaviour and Tg reached were studied by DSC. Conventional curing process was carried out with different amine hardeners, while the homopolymerisation reaction was initiated by imidazoles. The results indicate that epoxy/amine systems present a higher adhesive strength than homopolymerised resins. Nevertheless, the hydrothermal ageing causes more damage to epoxy/amine networks. This observation has been associated with the lower water uptake tendency of homopolymerised resins due to its lower hydroxyl group concentration. A new epoxy formulation based on the use of polyaminesiloxane as a hardener has been analysed. This system presents relatively good adhesive resistance, high value of Tg and low water absorption compared with other aliphatic amine/epoxy resins. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. (23 refs.)

Biocomposite hardboard from renewable biomass bonded with soybean-based adhesive
Ye, X. (Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, South Dakota State University); Julson, J.; Kuo, M.; Myers, D. Source: Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers, v 48, n 4, July/August, 2005, p 1629-1635
ISSN: 0001-2351 CODEN: TAAEAJ
Publisher: American Society of Agricultural Engineers
Abstract: The goal of this study was two-fold. The first was to determine the comparative properties of dry-formed hardboard made from renewable biomass (wheat and soybean straws) and from conventional soft wood fiber. The second was to compare the adhesion properties of a soybean-based adhesive with a conventional urea-formaldehyde resin. The hardboard properties evaluated were thickness swell, modulus of rupture, modulus of elasticity, and internal bond strength. The soybean-based adhesive resulted in significantly better mechanical properties and better water resistance than the urea-formaldehyde resin. Wheat straw and soybean straw were comparable in their mechanical and water resistance properties for hardboard production. However, hardboard made from wheat straw fiber and soy straw fiber had comparable mechanical properties but inferior water resistance to hardboard made from wood fiber. Wheat straw fiber and soy straw fiber can be used as co-fibers without treatment to be competitive with pure wood fiber for both mechanical and water resistance properties. A 50%/50% agrifiber/wood fiber composition provided comparable mechanical and water resistance properties to pure wood fiber for hardboard production. The thickness swell of hardboard increased with increasing agrifiber composition. Fiber, rather than adhesive, was the major contributor to thickness swell. Wheat straw fiber and soy straw fiber should be physically or chemically treated to increase their water resistance. © 2005 American Society of Agricultural Engineers. (10 refs.)

Studies on the adhesion behavior of water-based adhesives blended with asan gum
Shanmugharaj, A.M. (Indian Institute of Technology); Chattopadhyay, R.N.; Singha, Nikhil K.; Bhowmick, Anil K. Source: Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology, v 19, n 8, 2005, p 639-658
ISSN: 0169-4243 CODEN: JATEE8
Publisher: VSP BV
Abstract: The influence of asan gum, a locally available waste material obtained from the Terminalia alata tree, in blends with waterborne natural rubber adhesive and poly(vinyl acetate), on the lap shear strength and the peel strength has been investigated. Both the strength values increase, even with a small quantity of the gum. At a higher gum content, both these parameters, however, decrease. Fourier Transform Infrared studies reveal that there is no covalent bonding between the gum and the adhesives, although some hydrogen bonding exists in the poly(vinyl acetate) blend. Morphological studies reveal mechanical interlocking of the adhesive in the substrates. The pseudoplastic nature of the gum-modified waterborne adhesives has been confirmed from rheological studies using a Brookfield viscometer. The higher lap shear and peel strength values of the gum-modified adhesives compared to the control adhesives are attributed to the higher shear modulus of the former. The 100% modulus and tensile strength of the adhesives blended with the gum are also higher, compared to their controls. VSP 2005. (23 refs.)

Characterization of waterborne polyurethane adhesives containing different amounts of ionic groups
Perez-Liminana, M. Angeles (Adhesion and Adhesives Laboratory, University of Alicante); Aran-Ais, Francisca; Torro-Palau, Ana M.; Orgiles-Barcelo, A. Cesar; Martin-Martinez, Jose Miguel Source: International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives, v 25, n 6, December, 2005, p 507-517
ISSN: 0143-7496 CODEN: IJAADK
Publisher: Elsevier Ltd
Abstract: Waterborne polyurethane adhesives are an interesting alternative to the current solvent-based polyurethane adhesives used in footwear industry. In this study, different aqueous polyurethane dispersions were prepared by using the prepolymer mixing process. The ionic groups content in the polyurethane ionomer structure was varied by changing the amount (5 and 8 wt% (with respect to the prepolymer weight) of the internal emulsifier - dimethylolpropionic acid (DMPA). The decrease in the DMPA content slightly increased the particle size in number due to the decrease in both the hydrophilicity of the polyurethane ionomer, and the electrolytic stability of the aqueous polyurethane dispersion. Furthermore, the lower the DMPA amount, the lower the hard segment content in the ionomer and the higher the crystallinity of the polyurethane; however, the resistance to flow under temperature (i.e. thermoplasticity) was reduced. The resistance to thermal degradation of the polyurethane ionomer increased by decreasing the DMPA content due to the lower hard segment content. Finally, high initial adhesive strength was obtained and the adhesion to PVC increased as the DMPA content in the polyurethane ionomer decreased. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. (31 refs.)

Thin-disk test for adhesion-bond strength in solvent environments
Weaver, S. (Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Kentucky); Grulke, Erik A. Source: Journal of Adhesion, v 81, n 2, February, 2005, p 143-162
ISSN: 0021-8464 CODEN: JADNAJ
Publisher: Taylor and Francis Inc.
Abstract: A number of the popular tests for adhesive strength are difficult to apply to the study of adhesion under solvent environments. Complex applications, in which two different substrate materials need to be bonded and for which the substrates are thin sections, can be particularly difficult to study. The thin-disk test described here uses a thin annular disk of adhesive to bond two dissimilar materials while exposing the bond line to a circulating solvent. The new test was evaluated for a typical inkjet print-head application using surrogates for inkjet water-based inks. The joint is an epoxy adhesive joining a silicon wafer to a thermoplastic part (Rynite [registered trademark] ), in which the silicon substrate, the thermoplastic, or the various adhesive interfaces might fail. A conventional lap-shear test was compared with the thin-disk tes t for samples exposed to four different solvent systems plus water at two different temperatures. Lap-shear test failures occurred mostly in the thermoplastic part, with the exception of two samples exposed to the most aggressive solvents at high temperature. By contrast, thin-disk test failures occurred either in the silicon substrate or in the thermoplastic-adhesive interface. The thin-disk failure strengths at the thermoplastic-adhesive interface correlated with the equilibrium solvent swelling that could occur in the adhesive under the test conditions. This method could be adapted to other mixed-substrate bonding systems and would be particularly appropriate for thin section solids and thin adhesive layers. Copyright © Taylor and Francis Inc. (13 refs.)

The lowdown on peelable coatings specs and usage
Joseph, Ron Source: Metal Finishing, v 102, n 12, December, 2004, p 45-46
ISSN: 0026-0576 CODEN: MEFIA7
Publisher: Elsevier USA
Abstract: The use of peelable coating for capturing and removing overspray from spray booth walls and ceilings was discussed. Peelable coatings are formulated to have a low adhesive strength so that they can be peeled off at the appropriate time. Some water-based peelable coating are very safe, but the customer is always reminded to review the MSDS for potentially harmful ingredients. Using a simple photoelectric cell, it is easy to measure the difference in booth brightness between a spray booth made of galvanized steel sheeting with and without the application of a white peelable coating. (Edited abstract)

Formaldehyde-free environmentally friendly composites based on agricultural waste. I. Novel adhesive system
Basta, Altaf H. (Cellulose and Paper Department, National Research Centre); El-Saied, Houssni; Gobran, Riad H. Source: Polymer - Plastics Technology and Engineering, v 43, n 3, May, 2004, p 745-777
ISSN: 0360-2559
Publisher: Marcel Dekker Inc.
Abstract: A novel formaldehyde-free system based on carboxymethyl cellulose was investigated as an adhesive for the production of composites from agricultural waste products such as bagasse. The system was characterized by spectroscopy, thermal analysis, and antimicrobial action. The mechanical and physical properties of the bagasse composites produced were determined. Factors such as water content during board formation, pretreatment of bagasse by water steam, amount of adhesive used, and pressure and temperature of pressing stage were studied to arrive at the optimum conditions for improving composite properties. The results obtained show that the novel formaldehyde-free adhesive system has higher antimicrobial action and was found to degrade rapidly with a relatively high amount of residual char in comparison with commercial adhesives. Bagasse composites made with the new adhesive show improvement in mechanical properties, as well as fire retardancy, compared with commercial-adhesive-bagasse composites. Nonisothermal analysis was used to study thermal stability, fire retardancy, and to determine activation energies of degradation. © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. (24 refs.)

Pozzolanas as additives for grouts: An investigation of their working properties and performance characteristics
Griffin, Isobel (The National Trust for Scotland, South Regional Office) Source: Studies in Conservation, v 49, n 1, 2004, p 23-34
ISSN: 0039-3630 CODEN: SCONAH
Publisher: Int. Inst. for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works
Abstract: Grouting aims to address a lack of adhesion occurring within the render layers and support of a wall painting through the addition of an adhesive material with bulking properties. It is often desirable that a grout should set in the absence of air, and one way of achieving this is by using a lime-based grout with the addition of a pozzolana, which will react with the calcium hydroxide to form stable insoluble compounds possessing cementing properties. This paper characterizes a number of pozzolanas currently used for grouting wall paintings on calcareous renders, and assesses the working properties and performance characteristics of grouts made with the pozzolanas. The significance of the method of sample preparation on the properties of the grout is discussed. (6 refs.)

Soy-based adhesives with 1, 3-dichloro-2-propanol as a curing agent
Rogers, James (Dept. of Wood Science and Eng., Oregon State University); Geng, Xinglian; Li, Kaichang Source: Wood and Fiber Science, v 36, n 2, April, 2004, p 186-194
ISSN: 0735-6161 CODEN: WFSCD4
Publisher: Society of Wood Science and Technology
Abstract: Increasing concern over the impact of formaldehyde on human health has prompted a need for a formaldehyde-free wood adhesive. In this study, we investigated a new formaldehyde-free wood adhesive system consisting of soy protein (SP) and 1, 3-dichloro-2-propanol (DCP). DCP served as a crosslinking agent for SP. The shear strength of wood composites bonded with a SP-DCP adhesive depended on the SP/DCP weight ratio and the reaction conditions such as a reaction time and reaction temperature under which the SP-DCP adhesive was prepared. For a given SP/DCP weight ratio, the higher the reaction temperature, the higher the shear strength. Under the same reaction conditions, increasing the SP/DCP weight ratio, i.e., decreasing the relative amount of DCP in the adhesive, resulted in a decrease in the shear strength and water resistance of the resulting wood composites. Of all the SP/DCP weight ratios studied, 6:1 SP/DCP weight ratio at 85°C for 1.0 h gave the highest shear strength in the resulting wood composites. In terms of the shear strength, the 8:1 and 10:1 SP/DCP weight ratios were comparable to each other and were only slightly lower than with the 6:1 SP/DCP ratio. Further increasing the SP/DCP ratio to 12:1 or 15:1 greatly decreased the shear strength. The shear strength slightly increased with pressing temperature in the range of 100°C to 160°C at a press time of 5 min. Press times in the range of 1 min to 9 min had insignificant effects on the shear strength at a press temperature of 140°C. Storage of SP-DCP adhesive at room temperature for one or two days did not significantly affect the shear strength. However, a significant reduction of the shear strength was observed after the adhesive was stored at room temperature for 5 days. Wood composites bonded with a SP-DCP adhesive did not delaminate after they underwent a water-soaking-and-drying test and a boiling-water test. The crosslinking reactions between SP and DCP are discussed in detail. (11 refs.)

Investigation of formaldehyde-free wood adhesives from kraft lignin and a polyaminoamide-epichlorohydrin resin
Li, Kaichang (Dept. of Wood Sci. and Engineering, Oregon State University); Geng, Xinglian Source: Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology, v 18, n 4, 2004, p 427-439
ISSN: 0169-4243 CODEN: JATEE8
Publisher: VSP BV
Abstract: A formaldehyde-free wood adhesive system consisting of kraft lignin and a polyaminoamide-epichlorohydrin (PAE) resin (a paper wet strength agent) has been investigated in detail. The lignin-PAE adhesives were prepared by mixing an alkaline kraft lignin solution and a PAE solution. Mixing times longer than 20 min had little impact on the shear strength of the wood composites bonded with the lignin-PAE adhesives. The shear strength of the wood composites bonded with the lignin-PAE adhesives increased and then flattened out when the press time and the press temperature increased. The shear strength and water resistance of the wood composites bonded with the lignin-PAE adhesives depended strongly on the lignin/PAE weight ratio. Of the weight ratios studied, the 3:1 lignin/PAE weight ratio resulted in the highest shear strength and the highest water resistance of the resulting wood composites. The wood composites bonded with the lignin-PAE adhesives did not delaminate and retained very high strengths even after they underwent a boiling-water test. The lignin-PAE adhesives could be stored at room temperature for two days without losing their adhesion ability. PAE was the crosslinking agent in this lignin-PAE adhesive. Possible reactions between lignin and PAE are discussed in detail. (16 refs.)

Bonding strength of some adhesives in wood materials impregnated with Imersol-Aqua
Ors, Yalcin (Faculty of Technical Education, Gazi University); Atar, Musa; Keskin, Hakan Source: International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives, v 24, n 4, August, 2004, p 287-294
ISSN: 0143-7496 CODEN: IJAADK
Publisher: Elsevier Ltd
Abstract: This study has been conducted to determine the effects of wood pre-treatment on bonding strength of wood materials. To this end, the test samples prepared from Oriental beech (Fagus orientalis lipsky), oak (Quercus petraea liebl.), scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris lipsky) and Toros cedar (Cedrus libani A. Rich) woods materials (based on BS EN 204) were impregnated with Imersol-Aqua (I-A) by short-term, middle-term and long-term dipping methods according to the procedure of ASTM D 1413-76 standards and directions of the manufacturer. After impregnation, shear strength tests (based on BS EN 205) were applied on both sanded and non-sanded connection surfaces jointed by poly(vinyl acetate), Klebit 303 (K303), Kleiberit 305.0, Super-Lackleim 308 (SL308) and polyurethane (PU) (diphenylmethan-4, 4 prime -diisocyanate) adhesives. For the samples not sanded after impregnation, the highest shear strength was obtained in beech impregnated by the short-term dipping method and bonded with K303 (11.99N/mm2), whereas the lowest was in pine impregnated by long-term dipping and bonded with K303 (8.078N/mm2). As for sanded samples after impregnation, the highest shear strength was obtained in beech (12.69N/mm2) impregnated by short-term dipping and bonded with PU, whereas the lowest was in cedar (8.038) impregnated by long-term dipping with SL308. Accordingly, impregnation affected adhesive bonding strength negatively, whilst bonding surface sanding after impregnation affected adhesive bonding strength positively. To bond after the sanding process of impregnated surfaces is highly recommended to obtain high bonding strength in I-A-impregnated solid wood furniture and solid wood furniture elements. © 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. (21 refs.)

Water-soluble/dispersible cationic pressure-sensitive adhesives. II. Adhesives from emulsion polymerization
Yan, Zegui (School of Chemical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology); Luo, Yingwu; Deng, Yulin; Schork, Joseph Source: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, v 91, n 1, Jan 5, 2004, p 347-353
ISSN: 0021-8995 CODEN: JAPNAB
Publisher: John Wiley and Sons Inc.
Abstract: In our previous work, we reported that cationic water-soluble pressure-sensitive adhesives (PSAs) could be synthesized in ethanol or methanol. These cationic water-soluble adhesives would not cause a stickies problem during paper recycling and can be easily removed from the papermaking system by adsorbing on wood fibers. In this study we report the synthesis and application of water-based cationic PSAs using miniemulsion polymerization. A redox initiator system of cumene hydroperoxide/tetraethylenepentamine was used to force interfacial polymerization. The end-use properties of the PSAs were evaluated, and the repulpability of the PSAs in paper recycling was studied. It was found that the cationic PSA from miniemulsion polymerization itself was insoluble and nondispersible in water during the paper recycling process. However, if this water-insoluble cationic PSA from miniemulsion was formulated with a water-soluble cationic PSA made from ethanol, the solubility or dispensability of the former PSA in water was improved. The molecular weight and degree of crosslinking of the PSA polymer have significant effects on the properties and dispersability of PSA. (19 refs.)

Development of Screenable Pressure Sensitive Adhesives
Severtson, S. J.; Wang, X.; Nowak, M. J.; Guo, J.; Kroll, M. S.; Lien, J. A.; Houtman, C. J.; Scallon, K. L. (Minnesota Univ., St. Paul. Dept. of Wood and Paper Science.;Forest Products Lab., Madison, WI. Engineering.) Sponsor: Department of Energy, Washington, DC., Nov 2003, one CD-ROM contains 169 page document
Abstract: Several approaches were examined for meeting the project objective of developing pressure sensitive adhesive (PSA) products that are engineered for enhanced removal during the processing of recycled fiber, also known as environmentally benign PSAs. These included the (1) design of environmentally benign PSA films, (2) development of paper face stock with high screening removal efficiencies that retain attached PSA films and (3) modification of face stock surface properties to enhance the removal of PSA films. All three approaches yielded promising laboratory results that were confirmed at the pilot scale and appear to be commercially viable. Most of this study focused on hot-melt formulations, which compose a smaller portion of the PSA label market than water-based formulations. However, hot-melt formulations are considerably less complex and allow great flexibility for property modifications. The results of this research have direct application to the study of water-based PSAs, which will be the focus of future work.

Polyurethane adhesive system from biomaterial-based polyol for bonding wood
Desai, Sandip D. (Department of Industrial Chemistry, Vithalbha Patel/Rajratna P.T.P.S.C., Chatur Vidya Mandal Vallabh V.); Patel, Jigar V.; Sinha, Vijay Kumar Source: International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives, v 23, n 5, 2003, p 393-399
ISSN: 0143-7496 CODEN: IJAADK
Publisher: Elsevier Ltd
Abstract: Polyester polyols for use in the preparation of polyurethane (PU) adhesives were synthesized from potato starch and natural oils by a transesterification reaction. These polyester polyols were combined with an aromatic adduct based on toluene 2,4-diisocyanate to form a PU adhesive. Both the polyols and the PU adhesives were characte

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GLRPPR is a member of the Pollution Prevention Resource Exchange, a national network of regional information centers: NEWMOA (Northeast), WRRC (Southeast), GLRPPR (Great Lakes), ZeroWasteNet (Southwest), P2RIC (Plains), Peaks to Prairies (Mountain), WSPPN (Pacific Southwest), PPRC (Northwest).

P2Rx

One East Hazelwood Drive; Champaign, IL; 61820; (800) 407-0261; glrppr@istc.illinois.edu